Possible influence of Punic on Early Germanic

Carthaginian sphere of influence. Adapted from Kelly Macquire/Ancient History Encyclopedia, CC BY-NC-SA

Shillings, gods and runes: clues in language suggest a Semitic superpower in ancient northern Europe – Robert Mailhammer, The Conversation
July 5, 2020

We know from ancient writings that Greek, Phoenician and Punic explorers reached as far as the British Isles, which they called the Tin Islands. If only the works of Pytheas and Himilco survived! This article theorizes that certain Germanic words hint at the presence of Carthaginian merchants further afield. I don’t know if I buy the suggested etymologies, but it is fascinating food for thought!

The Family of Boaz Squires

Boaz Squires is a rather enigmatic figure. Appropriate, wouldn’t you say, for a man legend says was a wizard? Local stories claim he was a rather lazy fellow who made demons build boats while he lounged beneath the pines smoking his pipe. He even fought the Devil, on occasion, when Satan objected to Boaz’s use of his minions. His end came when his wife opened an old chest he said should never be opened. A couple of black cat-shaped demons leapt out, landing on his chest. Boaz, immediately, dropped dead. So say the stories. But what do the documents say?

from The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore; the folklore of North Carolina, collected by Dr. Frank C. Brown during the years 1912 to 1943, in collaboration with the North Carolina Folklore Society, Volume 1, p. 664

The Documented Life of Boaz Squires

The first record I’ve been able to unearth is a patent for 150 acres in Craven County. This land was situated on the north side of the southwest prong of Bay River. Boaz entered this patent 29 Oct 1765 and it was issued 27 Apr 1767. The minimum age to deal in real estate was twenty-one. This means he was born in or before 1744. Further, although his father, Rodger, and brother, Amos, appear on the 1755 Beaufort County tax list, Boaz does not. This means he was not yet sixteen. Thus, he was born after 1739. Rodger purchased 250 acres on the south side of Bay River from Francis Delamar 11 Jun 1739 (Beaufort County Deed Book 2, p. 303). Boaz was, most likely, born there.

On 24 Jun 1769, Boaz sold the land he’d patented to Robert Burney for £14 proclamation money (Craven County Deed Book 18, p. 328). In that year, he was assessed a tax for one white male and 1 black female.

Solomon Tingle sold Boaz 100 acres on the south side of Bay River 2 Feb 1778 for £85 (Craven County Deed Book 24, p. 137). Boaz bought another 100 acres there from John Denny 23 Jan 1779 (Craven County Deed Book 24, p. 133). He paid £100. He then sold half the land he bought from Denny to Amos Squires 3 Apr 1779 (Craven County Deed Book 24, p. 72). Taxes for 1779 must have been assessed before this because Boaz was taxed (District 4) for 200 acres, as well as 115 other property.


Boaz’s father, Rodger, composed his will 27 Feb 1770. Sons Amos and Boaz and daughter, Ruth Herrington, were left a shilling “sterling money of great britain”.

Rodger bequeathed his “non dwelling plantation” to his wife, Jean. However, she was not permitted to sell “any of the timber or other previledges or to dispose of the same” except for “the maintenance of her children under age.” After her death or remarriage, the plantation then went to his youngest daughter, Lydia.

The second youngest was called Thamar. His personal estate was left to Jean during her lifetime, then to be split between Lydia and Thamar. Unless she remarried. Then she was to receive a one third share.

A bequest of 106 acres was made to another daughter, Aliff, wife of Joshua Cuthrell. This land was purchased from James Brinson. Joshua and Jean were appointed Executor and Executrix. If Jean were to remarry, then she would have to resign from this appointment.

Were Thamar and Lydia “her children under age”? An inventory of Rodger’s Estate bears the date 2 Aug 1772.

Another, possible, sibling may have been Benjamin Squires. Benjamin witnessed a deed 5 Sep 1764 (Craven County Deed Book 2, p. 488). In order to witness a document, a person had to be, at least, 14 years of age. Thus, Benjamin Squires was born no later than 1750. I have found no other mention of Benjamin, so he may have died underage.

His “natural daughter”

On 3 Apr 1785, Boaz made out a deed of gift. In this document, he gives his “natural daughter”, Sidney Squires, his remaining 150 acres (Craven County Deed Book 26, p. 55). This land is described as “beginning at a Cypress over against Thomas Clayton’s shipyard….” He also gave her two negro boys, James and Charles. The witnesses were Amos, “Saray”, and Jeremiah Squires. It was proven in Court on the oath of Amos Squires during the June term.

During the December term, Sidney Squires “came into Court and made choice of Amos Squires as her Guardian Ordered that he Enter into Bond with Amos Squires and John Baker his securities….” The guardian bond was set at either £300 or £500. It’s difficult to tell.

Sometime before 1790, Sidney married Lemuel Allcock or Jones County. They, along with one slave, were enumerated there on the census. On 8 Mar of that year, they sold 50 acres to Amos Squires (Craven County Deed Book 27, p. 245). The other 100 was sold to Jacob Lewis 21 Jan 1791 (Craven County Deed Book 29, p. 219). At some unascertained point between 1796 and 1820, the family moved to Washington County, Georgia. This is where I found Siddy Allcock residing in 1820. Lemuel must have, already, been deceased. She was taxed in Washington County in both 1825 and 1828 for 215 3/4 acres of land. During the 1827 Land Lottery, Sidney drew one lot of 202 1/2 acres in Carroll County. Lemuel’s orphans also drew one lot. Both were taxed for this Carroll County property in 1828. Sidney was still living in 1850, aged 80. She was enumerated on the census in Dooly County, Georgia in that year.

Wife and Legitimate Children

If Boaz was not already wed to the lady with the Pandora complex by the time he entered his patent in 1765, he probably was by the time it was issued in 1767. Her name was Dinah. She sold a negro boy called Abraham to Henry Tillman for £30 29 Feb 1788 (Craven County Deed Book 43, p. 191). She died before 30 Sep 1791. On that day, Thomas Ives and wife, Hannah, sold “my Right and Title of the Land and negroes that belonged to Dinah Squires” to Pheraby Ives (Craven County Deed Book 29, p. 239).

Thomas Ives purchased a bond to marry Hannah Squires 30 Aug 1784. Thomas Carraway was bondsman. On 3 Nov 1815, Thomas Ives sold “his right in a certain property that I was heir to by the death of David Squires it being a parcel of negroes Tamer, Abram, Joseph, Pat, Sal, Bet, Ben and several names unknown” to Benjamin E. Mallison for $100 (Craven County Deed Book 43, p. 455 and 456) . He then sold “my right title and claim in the estate of Boze Squires in Dinah his wife decd. unto Thomas Leith” 13 Jan 1816 (Craven County Deed Book 42, p. 369 and 370).

“Saborough” Lewis and Isaiah Taylor, 5 Nov 1815, sold Benjamin Tillman “all our right title interest or claim whatsoever in and to a negro woman named Tamer formerly the property of Boaz Squires deceased and to any of her children or descendants, and also all our right title & interest as next of kin of Boaz Squires and David Squires his son, in and to the said negroes…” (Craven County Deed Book 43, p. 192). Jacob Lewis and Benjamin Riden purchased a bond for Jacob to marry Sabra Squires 20 Feb 1784.

Conclusions and Speculations

From the above evidence, we may conclude that Boaz Squires and Dinah, his wife, had, at least, three children: Hannah, Sabra and David. I’ve yet to discover how Isaiah Taylor fits into this family. Or even if he does. Whatever caused them to marry, I get the impression that Dinah and Boaz did not have a warm relationship. Note that Boaz gave all of his real property to an illegitimate daughter, Sidney. All of the identifiable witnesses for that deed were of his brother’s family, not his own.

It is possible that there was another son, John, who purchased a bond to marry Hannah Gaskins 2 Dec 1796. I would not be surprised to learn that one of the men named Amos Squires was theirs, as well. There were, at least, three. Then there are the Mary Squires who married William Gaskins and Zipporah who wed Joseph Gaskins then Jesse Everington, both of uncertain parentage.

Dinah Squires to Henry Tillman
Craven County Deed Book 43, p. 191
Boaz Squires to Sidney Squires
Craven County Deed Book 26, p. 55
Thomas Ives to Benjamin E. Mallison
Craven County Deed Book 43, p. 455 and 456
Thomas Ives to Thomas Leith
Craven County Deed Book 42, p. 369 and 370
Sabra Lewis and Isaiah Taylor to Benjamin Tillman
Craven County Deed Book 43, p. 192

Bridgerton Release Date!

Author Julia Quinn “cordially” invites us “to the event of the season… BRIDGERTON, from Shondaland, premieres December 25, only on Netflix.” Merry Christmas, indeed!


What happens when continents collide?

House of Earth and Blood by Sarah J. Maas

Bryce walked calmly to the hidden supply closet. Pulled out a red plastic container. And dumped the entire gallon of gasoline on the Governor’s dismembered corpse.

“Holy fuck,” Ruhn whispered, over and over. “Holy fuck.”

The rest of the room didn’t so much as breathe too loudly. Even Sandriel had no words as Bryce grabbed a pack of matches from a drawer i her desk.

She struck one, and tossed it onto the Governor’s body.

Flames erupted. The fireproofing enchantments on the art around her shimmered.

There would be no chance of salvation. Of healing. Not for Micah. Not after what he had done to Danika Fendyr. To the Pack of Devils. And Lehabah.

Bryce stared at the fire, her face still splattered with the Archangel’s blood. And finally, she lifted her eyes. Right a the camera. At the world watching.

Vengeance incarnate. Wrath’s bruised heart. She would bow for no one. Hunt’s lightning sang at the sight of that brutal, beautiful face.

Time sped up, the flames devouring Micah’s body, crisping his wings to cinders. They spat him out as ashes.

Sirens wailed outside the gallery as the Auxiliary pulled up at last.

Bryce slammed the front door shut as the first of the Fae units and wolf packs appeared.

No one, not even Sandriel, spoke a word as Bryce too out the vacuum from the supply closet. And erased the last trace of Micah from the world.

House of Earth and Blood p. 709

LOVED this book! Definitely can’t wait for the next one. Spent, at least, a hundred pages in tears.

Y chromosomes of Neandertals and Denisovans now sequenced

Matthias Meyer at work in the clean laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Credit: MPI f. Evolutionary Anthropology)

An international research team led by Martin Petr and Janet Kelso of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has determined Y chromosome sequences of three Neandertals and two Denisovans. These Y chromosomes provide new insights into the relationships and population histories of archaic and modern humans, including new evidence for ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Neandertals.

Source: Y chromosomes of Neandertals and Denisovans now sequenced

Another possible heir of Elizabeth Reel Gatlin

In a previous post, I posited that the Elizabeth Gatlin who was issued a patent for 100 acres 21 Jul 1774 was Elizabeth Reel Gatlin, widow of the Edward who died in 1763. Based on a deed found on page 373 of Craven County Deed Book 163, as well as evidence found in marriage bonds, I next hypothesized that she and Edward had six children together. And, further, that four of these children were

  1. Sarah Gatlin who married Evan Thomas. The marriage bond was purchased 6 Oct 1782. A James Gatlin acted as surety.
  2. Joshua Gatlin who married Sarah Banks.  James Gatlin was, again, surety for the 11 Oct 1783 bond.
  3. John Gatlin whose bond to marry Esther Tingle was purchased 16 Jan 1784.  The bondsman was, you guess it, James Gatlin.
  4. James Gatlin, himself, purchased a bond to wed Mary Surles (or Searles) 11 Feb 1784.  Joshua Gatlin was bondsman.

Now, I may be able to add another son, name currently unknown.

State of North Carolina Craven County
Warranted Deed Know all men by these presents that Wm. Gatlin of & in consideration of to sell my right and title which I have in a piece of land & likewise my uncle James Gatlin the same the two rights I sell for twenty dollars to Shaderick Gatlin & the receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge do hereby give grant sell and convey unto the said Shaderick Gatlin a certain lot or parcel of land & here insert the premises surveyed for Elizabeth Gatlin one hundred acres of land in Craven County on the North side of Neuse River and east side of Swift’s Creek begining at a red oak John Gatlin’s corner near the cutting sedge and runs No 25 Wt 140 pole to a small white oak near the head of Griffith’s branch then No 65 Et 114 pole to a small pine then So 25 Et 140 pole to a black Jack near the road then to the begining the two rights I sell out of the said tract is 33 1/3 acres. To have and to hold the same to the said Shaderick Gatlin his heirs and assigns to his & there use and benifit forever and I do covenant with the said Shaderick Gatlin his heirs and assigns that I am lawfully seized in fee of the premises that they are free of all incumbrances that I have good right to sell and convey the same to the said Shaderick Gatlin his heirs and assigns forever against the lawful claims and demands of any persons. April 10th 1818 ——
unto set my hand and seal this being the year of Our Lord One thousand eight hundred and eighteen —
Signed Sealed and
delivered in presence William Gatlin
of Solomon Henry
Benjn. F Brinson

Craven County Court March Term 1819
Then was the due and legal execution of the foregoing deed acknowledged by the grantor in open court Ordered that said Deed be Registered
Attest J. G. Stanley C.C.

Craven County Deed Book 41, p. 176

Uncle James was, most likely, the man who married Mary Surles and stood surety for his siblings’ bonds. William’s father appears to have been yet another son of Edward Gatlin and Elizabeth Reel. More, William was, either, an only child, or his siblings perished without legitimate issue. There were multiple William Gatlins in the records of this period, so I’m not really certain which one this is.

Interestingly, Shadrack sold his brother-in-law, Shadrack Roe, 16 Mar 1819 “a certain piece or parcel of land…on the North side of Neuse river and eastside of Swift Creek containing Seventy three acres being part of a tract granted Elizabeth Gatlin for one hundred acres…” (Craven County Deed Book 41, p. 307).  Why is this interesting?  Let’s do some math.  One hundred divided by six is 16 2/3.  So each of their six children was entitled to 16 2/3 acres of the patent.  Two “undivided sixths” is 33 1/3 acres.  Therefore, Shadrack Gatlin acquired 66 2/3 acres of land.  Other evidence suggests that Shadrack, himself, had five siblings.  Plus, his mother, Esther Tingle Gatlin, would have been entitled to 1/3 of their father’s Estate.  When I did the math on this, Esther ended up with 5 5/9 acres and each child with 1 23/27 acres.  I know that Esther was deceased by 3 Jul 1819.  Did she die earlier?  If so, then Shadrack would inherit a sixth portion of her share.  This would total, all together, a little over 74 acres.  So, obviously, I’m missing something!  Or, maybe, an acre was set aside for some purpose.  A family graveyard, perhaps.

Evan & Sarah Thomas and John & Sarah Roderick, Fredrick & Elizabeth Johnston, James & Naomi Hoover, Levi Gatlin and Joshua Gatlin to Shadrack Gatlin
Craven County Deed Book 163, p. 373 and 374
William Gatlin to Shadrack Gatlin
Craven County Deed Book 41, p. 176
Shadrack Gatlin to Shadrack Roe
Craven County Deed Book 41, p. 307 and 308

How Ancient Art Captured Australian Megafauna




Is he crazy? Or is there a very tricksy ambush about to happen?  Or is Ivar just seeing things?  Whichever it is, the gods are, no doubt, enjoying the show!

Best of Bugs


I don’t really agree with #10.  What about that last scene in “Duck Amuck!”?  Or “Falling Hare”?  What do you think?